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The Gut-Brain Axis. Dietary, Probiotic, And Pre...


Growth retardation (GR), which commonly occurs in childhood, is a major health concern globally. However, the specific mechanism remains unclear. It has been increasingly recognized that changes in the gut microbiota may lead to GR through affecting the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Microbiota interacts with multiple factors such as birth to affect the growth of individuals. Microbiota communicates with the nerve system through chemical signaling (direct entry into the circulation system or stimulation of enteroendocrine cells) and nervous signaling (interaction with enteric nerve system and vagus nerve), which modulates appetite and immune response. Besides, they may also influence the function of enteric glial cells or lymphocytes and levels of systemic inflammatory cytokines. Environmental stress may cause leaky gut through perturbing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to further result in GR. Nutritional therapies involving probiotics and pre-/postbiotics are being investigated for helping the patients to overcome GR. In this review, we summarize the role of microbiota in GR with human and animal models. Then, existing and potential regulatory mechanisms are reviewed, especially the effect of microbiota-gut-brain axis. Finally, we propose nutritional therapeutic strategies for GR by the intervention of microbiota-gut-brain axis, which may provide novel perspectives for the treatment of GR in humans and animals.




The Gut-Brain Axis. Dietary, Probiotic, and Pre...


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Research shows that the gut and brain are connected, a partnership called the gut-brain axis. The two are linked through biochemical signaling between the nervous system in the digestive tract, called the enteric nervous system, and the central nervous system, which includes the brain. The primary information connection between the brain and gut is the vagus nerve, the longest nerve in the body.


Probiotics are living bacteria, which when ingested in adequate amounts, confer health benefits. Gut microbes are suggested to play a role in many psychiatric disorders and could be a potential therapeutic target. Between the gut and the brain, there is a bi-directional communication pathway called the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The purpose of this review is to examine data from recent interventional studies focusing on probiotics and the gut-brain axis for the treatment of depression, anxiety and schizophrenia.


Gut-brain axis related conditions refer to many conditions from psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, stress, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia to neurological problems such as autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Current literature continues to present studies on the relationship between psychological conditions and LBPs [16,17,18,19]. It is accepted that the gut microbiota has a role in regulating psychological health in addition to physical health through the gut-brain axis. Besides negative changes in the intestinal microbiota may cause psychological disorders [20]. As with psychological disorders, the alteration of gut-brain axis interactions has been advocated as a potential cause of some neurological diseases [21]. In this review article, promising roles, mechanisms of action and possible safety issues of LBPs in gut-brain axis related neurological conditions are discussed in the light of current human and animal studies.


The suggested mechanism by which diet may interact with our mood is via the gut-brain axis. This axis refers to the signalling that occurs between our gut and our central nervous system (CNS), which comprises the spinal cord and the brain. Gut permeability, which refers to the gut allowing substances to pass through it, is thought to play a role.


The clinical trials discussed suggest a direct effect of pre and probiotics on the brain, supporting the role of gut health in mental health. Animal studies showing that probiotics reduce intestinal permeability and depressive symptoms in rats support the previously proposed mechanism of the gut-brain axis.


The brain and the gut are intimately linked through bidirectional communication that includes sensory and motor neuronal connections, circulating hormones, and immune factors. Additionally, studies have shown the importance of gut-microbiota in this interaction, through signaling from the gut-microbiota to the brain and from the brain to gut-microbiota, which illustrates the complexity of the gut-brain axis. The gut-brain axis can be modulated by probiotics in animals and adult humans, but little research has focused on the broader impact of dietary components across the lifespan. 041b061a72


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